The differences between potential energy and kinetic energy are as follows:

SN |
Kinetic Energy |
Potential Energy |

1. | Kinetic energy is the energy possessed by a body by virtue of its state of motion. | Potential energy is the energy possessed by a body by virtue of its position. |

2. | The factors affecting an object's kinetic energy are its mass and velocity ( at any given instant ). | The factors affecting the potential energy of a body are changes in mass, height (position), the intensity of the force field (like a gravitational force field). |

3. | Kinetic energy can be transformed into many different forms of energy such as potential energy, sound energy, light energy, heat energy, etc. | Potential energy can only be transferred into kinetic energy. |

4. | The kinetic energy of a body can be transferred into another body (by collision) | Potential energy cannot be transferred into another body. |

5. | The kinetic energy of an object is relative to its environment. Because the velocity of an object is relative to the reference point. | Potential energy on the other hand is not relative to the surrounding. |

6. | The formula to calculate kinetic energy is, \(KE=\frac12mv^2\), where 'm' is the mass and 'v' is the velocity of an object. | The formula to calculate potential energy is, P = mgh, where 'm' is the mass of an object, 'h' is the height (distance), g is the acceleration due to gravity. |