Positive motivation is that process of attempting to influence the behavior of employees through the possibility of reward. Positive motivation is virtually a kind of technique to inspire the subordinates. In this motivation, the management provides financial and non-financial incentives for the satisfaction of all kinds of primary and secondary needs which positively inspires employees to show their best performance. It is concerned with the incentives such as an increase in salary, allowances, benefits, provision of promotion, rewards, and others; achievement such as praise, encouragement, acceptance by group and respect by the management. Positive motivation may be financial or non-financial or individual or group motivation.
Negative motivation is the method of motivating the employees by using different tools like fear, threats, power and punishment. Employees are motivated to work and complete the assignment as desired due to the fear that they have to consequence or avoid. The tools used in negative motivation are reprimands, disciplinary actions, demotion, loss of job, dismissal from the post, deduction of salary, group rejection. Any kind of deterioration may be included in negative motivation.
The Maslow's need hierarchy theory can be explained below:
- Physiological needs: Physiological needs are also known as basic and primary needs. These needs are common to all individuals. These needs involve food, cloth, shelter, sex and so on. These needs are related to survival and maintenance of human life. Physiological needs are mentioned at the lower level in the hierarchy of needs. These needs are addressed by providing appropriate wage with sound working environment.
- Security/Safety needs: People the employees seek economical security or security of job when basic needs are fulfilled. These needs are mentioned in the second level in the hierarchy of Maslow's motivation theory. Security needs involve the security of job, security old age pension provision, protection against unexpected events, insurance and so on.
- Social Affiliation needs: Human beings as employees are social creatures. They always want to live in the society. Socia need involves belongingness, acceptance, friendship, love affection and so on. Hence, the manager has to develop the feeling at belongingness and teamwork.
- Esteem / ego needs: This need has phycological nature and they are kept in the higher level hierarchy of needs. This need involves self-confidence, self-respect, praise power, prestige, appreciation and so on. The manager can fulfill the ego needs by defining position importance and by developing the system of reward and punishment.
- Self-actualization needs: These needs are the highest level need in Maslow's need hierarchy. Self-actualization of self-satisfaction can be obtained after the achievement of prior needs. These needs are the self-development and creative needs of human being. Employees seek challenging job to perform their own creativity. Management can motivate the employees by providing creative and challenging job.