Maslow's need hierarchy theory of motivation who propounded by American psychologist Arahman Maslow. It is based on the need of people according to priority. According to Maslow, human needs can be defined / divided into 5 categories and need can be arranged / addressed according to importance. It further states this theory that lower or basic needs must be addressed before higher needs are satisfied.
- Physiological needs: Physiological needs are also known as basic and primary needs. These needs are common to all individuals. These needs involve food, cloth, shelter, sex and so on. These needs are related to survival and maintenance of human life. Physiological needs are mentioned at the lower level in the hierarchy of needs. These needs are addressed by providing appropriate wage with sound working environment.
- Security/Safety needs: People the employees seek economical security or security of job when basic needs are fulfilled. These needs are mentioned in the second level in the hierarchy of Maslow's motivation theory. Security needs involve the security of job, security old age pension provision, protection against unexpected events, insurance and so on.
- Social Affiliation needs: Human beings as employees are social creatures. They always want to live in the society. Socia need involves belongingness, acceptance, friendship, love affection and so on. Hence, the manager has to develop the feeling at belongingness and teamwork.
- Esteem / ego needs: This need has phycological nature and they are kept in the higher level hierarchy of needs. This need involves self-confidence, self-respect, praise power, prestige, appreciation and so on. The manager can fulfill the ego needs by defining position importance and by developing the system of reward and punishment.
- Self-actualization needs: These needs are the highest level need in Maslow's need hierarchy. Self-actualization of self-satisfaction can be obtained after the achievement of prior needs. These needs are the self-development and creative needs of human being. Employees seek the challenging job to perform their own creativity. Management can motivate the employees by providing the creative and challenging job.