In 1859, Italy witnessed great measure at the battle of Salferino. In June, a young Swiss businessman, doctor and philanthropist, Jean Henry Dunant (1828-1910) was vacationing inSalferino. One day, he went to meet the French emperor Napoleon III (1808-73). Butthe sight of the war ridden town moved him. Forty thousand people were killed and injured in the continuous war between the Austrians, during the French and Austrians struggle for Italian independence. Italy was full of wounded soldiers. They were lying all over the town allying helpless. So, Dunant began to organize help. He urged the women to nurse and to supply bandage. He urged the children to carry water. He urged the others to help the wounded by any other means. The situation improved within five weeks. On his return, Dunant resolved to establish an organization invite "the volunteers from all over the world and help the causalities of the war or national disasters like earthquakes." He proposed it three years later (1862) in his book UN Souvenir deSalferino(amemory ofSalferino). It stirred the entire established a permanent international committee. Itwas represented by delegates of 16 countries sounding to the international Red Cross.